Although it contains limited information, a census taken in the mid 1780's has been found in the papers of John Kean at Kean University in New Jersey. For the most part, the census is simply a total of residents of states, but it also breaks down number of blacks and native americans within each state.
This is interesting information and reinforces the basic idea that we have to continue to search for new resources for research.
Read more at the New York Times pages at:
And thanks to Dick Eastman and Eastman's Online Genealogy Newsletter for bringing this to my attention.